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General Chemistry 2

General Chemistry 2


Group Leader : Prof. Kristiina Wähälä, University of Helsinki, FI ( wg.gcx@echemtest.eu )

Public : This test has been designed to evaluate a level of competence in Chemistry equivalent to that of a person beginning a university education.

Duration : You may answer the questions in any order during 60 minutes.

Structure : The test consists of 30 questions covering the 10 topics given below, with 10 questions at each 3 levels of difficulty (introductory, intermediate, advanced).

  1. Atomic structure: Atomic model, isotopes - Electron cloud (orbitals s, p, d, f) - Periodic table - Periodic properties of elements - Amount of substance, Mole, Avogadro's constant
  2. Chemical reaction: Chemical equation, balancing equations - Reaction series, chemical calculations (masses, volumes, mole concentrations) - Transition complex, activation energy - Determination of rate of chemical reaction - Factors affecting reaction rates - Catalysis (homogeneous, heterogeneous, enzymatic catalysis)
  3. Chemical bonding: Electronegativity - Ionic, covalent and metallic bonds - Dipole-dipole bond, hydrogen bond - Dispersion forces (van der Waals bond)
  4. States of matter: Changes of states - Models of solid and gas states - Laws of gases - Solutions - Concentration
  5. Acids and bases: Protolysis - Conjugate acids and bases - Acidity and basicity - pH of aqueous solutions, Ionic product of water Kw - Acid-base equilibrium, use of dissociation constants Ka and Kb to calculate pH for weak acids and bases - Titration curve - Buffer solutions
  6. Energy: Endothermic and exothermic reactions - Enthalpy - Energy of formation - Hess's law
  7. Redox reactions: Oxidation and reduction - Oxidation number - Coefficients in RedOx equations - Activity series of metals - Electrode potentials - Electrolysis (Faraday's law)
  8. Chemistry of elements: Characteristic properties of elements and compounds in groups I...VIII - Trends in properties of elements and compounds in main groups and in period 3 - Transition metals (existence of several oxidation states, compounds)
  9. Chemical equilibrium: Dynamic nature of equilibrium - Homogeneous equilibrium (Chatelier's principle, changes of pressure, temperature and concentration) - Equilibrium constant
  10. Organic chemistry: Homologous series - Functional groups and corresponding compounds - IUPAC Nomenclature- Structural and stereo isomers - Organic reactions (substitution, addition, elimination, polymerization : addition and condensation, reactions of functional groups)

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